A New Long-term Performance Incentive System: Overall Owner Value Added (OVA)
Ti-Ling WANG/Chao-Hui YEH
Keywords: Economic Value Added (EVA), Overall Owner Value Added (OVA), Net Present Value (NPV), Net Final Value (NFV)
This paper is a theory paper with mathematical proof of the theory. To establish an overall picture of economic profit, this paper study a new long-term performance incentive system called Overall Owner Value Added (in the future referred to as OVA). This article describes the OVA has important economic significance and capability as an alternatives of the economic value added (in the future referred to as EVA). We show that to claim that EVA measures the firm’s “value creation” in each period is a tremendous error. That EVA measures may be useful for measuring the performance of managers or business units, but it does not make any sense at all to use EVA to measure value creation in each period. The problems with EVA start when it is wished to give these parameters a meaning (that of value creation) that they do not have: value always depends on expectations.
We found a relationship between OVA and EVA, and establish equations between them. OVA can be used to explain corporate governance, business valuation, incentive awards, and capital budgeting decisions. We find that the difference between OVA and EVA are as follows: EVA is based on NPV (Net Present Value), however, OVA is based on NPV (Net Final Value). Recommendations for corporate governance: If managers are rewarded based on the OVA, so their past performance has not been removed, but if managers are rewarded based on the EVA, then their past performance has been deleted.
In this paper, we will study a new overall performance incentive system, which we will label Ownership’s Value Added (OVA). We will show that the OVA are a logical device for measuring residual income, with a vital economic meaning and competence of acting as an alternative to the EVA. We find that the OVA have some relationships with the economic value added (EVA), and we build the equation model between EVA and OVA. It proves that two different interpretations are probable. The results discovered make this new OVA approach a good candidate for firm valuation, incentive compensation, and capital budgeting decision-making. The OVA offer us a new way of thinking of the residual income, which is an alternative to EVA but equally helpful. The OVA is a whole management system that changes importance and behavior to focus on value. It is both the measure of a firm’s real profitability and a strategy for creating firm and Ownership wealth. The OVA is seen as a new, original and logical device to management and inspire people to make decisions based on the various strategic alternatives.
The Impact of Green Building on Performance of the Residential Construction in Taiwan
Henry H.Y. HSIEH/Hui Chung SU
Keyword: Green Building, Construction Performance, Social Responsibility, Green Paradigm
This research analyzes the benefit and influence of green building on the construction industry in Taiwan using Structure-Conduct-Performance (S-C-P) model. A sample of 260 observations in the 20 cities and counties in Taiwan during 2000-2012 was tested by Pooled Cross-Sectional Time-Series regression model. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Two Stage Least Squares (2SLS) to analyze the impact of the supply side, demand side and green building on the behavior and performance of the construction industry in Taiwan. The results indicated that green building had spillover effects on the construction performance. The certified candidates of green building were positively significant to construction completions, indicating that green building will influence construction performances. In addition, Steel Structure buildings were positively significant to completions, indicating that the focus of construction in Taiwan had changed to safer and greener building since Steel Structure building is theoretically greener and safer than RC Structure. Recently the number of steel structure building in creased remarkably. The depth of green buildings represents sustainable buildings. But the depth of green buildings were not consistent with the development in Taiwan. The depth of green buildings also implies the efforts of corporate social responsibility. The declining of green depth implies that developer should make more efforts on the green buildings. We found that green building had gradually been a paradigm of the construction industry. However, to promote the green building should not confine on the attainment of green certificate only. Instead we should consider green equivalent, measuring how much green activity developer dedicated to. Green building will enhance the value of the building; therefore green building will be an advantageous strategy to developers. The study suggested that developers could use the strategies of green building to differentiate with others. In addition green building as social responsibility is a lever to strengthen competitiveness.
Impact on the Stability of the Staff of the Corporate Governance
Wen-Hsi Lydia HSU/Rou-Harn SHU
Keywords: Board Governance, Senior Management Team Compensation, Foreign Institutional Investors Holding Shares, Degree of Staff Stability
Corporate governance is the most critical success factors that affect the countries of the world and improve enterprise system. Businesses can continue to operate forever, employees are the most important assets. Corporate governance mechanisms affect the stability of the staff. However, it has little domestic research to explore this issue. With good corporate governance mechanisms enterprises not only can improve their performance, reduce business risk, improve operational effectiveness, and strengthen international competitiveness, but also to improve the profitability of the enterprise, as create conditions for higher profit to shareholders, while producing a positive impact on degree of staff stability. In this study, data sources from Taiwan Economic Journal database and MOPS database were utilized. The samples include all listed companies in Taiwan for the period of 2009 to 2012. In this study, board governance dimensions (the ratio of independent directors, directors and supervisors equity pledge ratio, CEO duality involved in the management, directors’ shareholding ratio), high-level management team remuneration dimensions (salary, superannuation, bonuses and special fees, cash dividends, stock dividends, employee stock options) and foreign institutional investors holdings dimensions (foreign institutional ownership ratio) between the stability of the staff and, using multiple regression analysis and the study sample variables.
The results showwed that the higher the ratio of independent directors, the lower the stability of the staff; Companies with chairman involved in the management and served as General Manager (CEO) tend to have lower Degree of Staff Stability .
In addition, directors and supervisors pledge ratio, directors’ shareholding ratio, top management team salaries, gratuities, bonuses and allowances, cash dividends, stock dividends, employee stock options and foreign institutional ownership ratios were not significantly affect the degree of staff stability.
An Empirical Research of Five-Phases Allelopathy Model on Stock Selection Strategy: An Example of the Nikkei 225 Index’s Component Stocks
Kung-Hsiung CHANG /Bo-Xi CHEN
Keywords: Five-PhasesAllelopathy Model, Nikkei225 Constituent Stocks
Based on the Five-Phases Allelopathy Theory of Chinese numerology, this paper establishes a stock selecting model. In this study, we use the theory of the Five-Phases of Chinese numerology as the main concept of the modeling establishment, of which the five elements gold, wood, water, fire, earth’s allelopathy relations as the main concept. We use Nikkei 255 Constituent Stocks’ monthly data in Japan stock market as sampling data from 2000 to 2012, totally as 13 years. The results show that the special industry’s stocks belonging to fire-phase obtain a highest accuracy of 98.18% in sampling period from a natal numerology.
An Empirical Research of Numerology on Stock Selection Strategy of the Nikkei 225 Index’s Component Stocks
Alex K.H. CHANG/Hanna C.Y. KE
Keywords: Numerology, Stock Selection Strategy, Bagua School, Meihuayishu School, Digital Magnetic Field School, Shinjuku School, Number Future, Nikkei 225 Index
In the Study, four Chinese and a western numerologies were used upon stock selection strategy using Nikkei 225 Index’s Component Stocks as sample during the period from January 4, 2000 to December 28, 2012. The adjusting monthly closing stock price were used as the sample data through the Rolling-Window Method, End monthly, quarterly, half yearly and yearly. All date are examined by Bagua School, Meihuayishu School, Digital Magnetic Field School , Shinjuku School and Number Future, sampling stocks were classified as good and bad group against numeric data, I further incorporated with the test analysis applied on the rate of return in monthly, quarterly, half yearly and yearly, to verify if separately classified good/bad group the rate of return was listed in the order of good/bad from high to low. The empirical results indicated that grouped stocks by Bagua School, Meihuayishu School, Digital Magnetic Field and Shinjuku School were not listed the order of good/bad from high to low.Only grouped stocks by Number Future was listed in the order of good/bad from high to low. The result showed that it is possible to serve number numerology as the referable base in the investment of selection strategy on Nikkei 225 Index’s component stocks.
Qualitative research and Case-Oriented Comparative Method
Daniel Chan-Wei TSAI/Tzu-hsiu KUO/Hsin-Yu CHEN /JUN-YEN LIU
Keywords: Case-Oriented Comparative Method, Methodology, Narrative Strategy Story
Case-Oriented Comparative Method is not a popular methodology in Taiwan. The reasons such this methodology has not yet been utilized widly were because of lack of the interpretation to case and theoretical reasoning. This study try to discuss this methodology through the debate between Dyer&Wilkins and Eisenhardt, and we use three conglomerates as a example to discuss how to analysis data and build a useful theory.